To understand how bi-directional charging works, you need to know the technology behind it. There are 2 different options for bidirectional charging:
1. A bidirectional converter is implemented in the vehicle.
Here, the inverter/rectifier of the vehicle is technically designed in such a way that an extended electrotechnical intermediate circuit is added. This ensures that the current can also flow back (this is currently not possible with almost all electric vehicles). This must then also be programmed by the electric car manufacturer and adapted to the new communication standard ISO15118-20.
2. The electricity is stored and fed back or can be sent back into the grid via a bidirectional wallbox.
With this variant, there is no electrical intermediate circuit and the electric car manufacturer "only" has to provide the data from the vehicle via ISO15118-20. A manufacturer of a bidirectional DC charger can then use this information to control the bidirectional wallbox. This is technically designed in such a way that the AC input voltage (AC voltage at 230V / 1 phase or 400V / 3 phase) is rectified. The AC voltage is converted into DC voltage and can then be fed into the vehicle as DC voltage via a CCS connector or CHAdeMO connector. By programming in the bidirectional wallbox, the user can then decide, either via a app control or a higher-level energy management system, whether they want to charge the electric car or use the car as energy storage and, for example, discharge it from the electric car to to power your home (V2H Vehicle to Home).
Electric cars with bidirectional charging
Since most manufacturers have not yet thought about bi-directional charging, there are still very few electric car manufacturers that support bidirectional charging. Asian manufacturers such as Nissan, Mitsubishi and Honda are much more advanced here and have been able to do this technically for several years.
Since there are various hurdles for bidirectional charging in Europe, there are hardly any wallbox manufacturers who have dedicated themselves to this topic. As a result, there are currently very few electric cars on the market that have bidirectional capabilities.
Here are the current electric cars that have bidirectional charging:
Bidirectional charging with CHAdeMO:
- Nissan LEAF
- from year of construction 2013 with 24kWh, 33kWh, 40kWh and 63kWh battery
- Nissan eNV
- with 24kWh and 40kWh battery
- Mitsubishi iMiEV
- Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV
- Peugeot iON (from model year 2016)
- Citroen C-ZERO
Bidirectional charging with CCS:
- Honda e
- Honda e advanced
- and soon to be released Ford F-150 Lightning EV