Electric car charging possibility and charging method
What are the different types of charging ?
Which connector types are available ?
What is DC direct current / AC alternating current charging ?
There are only 4 charging modes for electric mobility. This is described in the international standard IEC 61851-1.
The 4 charging modes for electric cars are divided into Mode 1, Mode 2, Mode 3 and Mode 4. Outside these 4 charging modes there are none and are not permitted.
Charge Mode 1
In this charging mode for electric vehicles, you can charge with a maximum of 16 A single or 3 phase. There is no pilot wire implemented in the charging cable that can communicate with the electric vehicle. Thus no 100 % safe charging is possible, since the cable can be pulled under current. Therefore, mode 1 for charging E cars is not installed by car manufacturers.
Charge mode 2
Mode 2 charging of an E car is flexibly ensured by a charging cable, where the charging station is integrated in a box in the charging cable. On one side you can plug in the vehicle with the appropriate type 1 or type 2 plug, then the charging station comes in a box and on the other end there are either permanently installed plugs or exchangeable systems. At this end are the commercially available plugs, which are familiar from the energy supply used up to now. Either a "Schuko" plug 1 - phasig (which fits into the household socket), a blue so-called "camping plug" 16 A 1 - phasig, then the red 16 A CEE plug 3 - phasig and the red 32 A CEE plug 3 - phasig. Here a safety is guaranteed, because everything is integrated in the charging station. In case of overcurrent, the charging box goes into malfunction, also reports a DC fault for personal protection and communicates with the E car via the CP. Thus, the charging of the electric vehicle can only be started and stopped if the vehicle is in order. The type 1 plug or type 2 plug has an additional resistance coding in accordance with the IEC 62196 standard for maximum current limitation, so that a higher current can never flow than the charging cable and the entire system can withstand. The advantage of this charging mode Mode 2 is that the existing power supply can be used. The charging cable is also flexible and can be taken in the car. By expanding, for example, with different plug systems, all possible plug types of the power supply can be covered with one charging cable and one could charge anywhere.
Where there are advantages, there are disadvantages. So you could lose the charging cable or it is not as easily protected against theft as a fixed charging station. In addition, it could be run over or quickly destroyed after a while by e.g. grinding on the ground. Since one does not know how the electrical installation is structured behind the respective socket with wire cross-section or fuse, it could be that in the worst case the charge of the electric car would lead to overheating and fire. Many manufacturers therefore write in the manual that the charging cable is an emergency charging cable or that the socket where the electric car is to be charged should only be checked by a qualified electrician through measurements before use.
Charge mode 3
In this charging mode, you have a charging station that is mounted on a wall or on a pedestal. This charging station has its own power supply. It is connected directly from the house / electrical installation (usually distribution box) individually. If you want to charge with Mode 3, then there are two possibilities. Either you take a charging station, which has a fixed charging cable with suitable Ty 1 plug or type 2 plug or you take a charging station with charging socket in type 2. In the first possibility you can choose your individual cable length and the suitable plug for your electric car. However, you are not completely flexible, as you may get an electric vehicle with a different plug type or you may have guests with a different plug type and they could not charge. The advantage is that you can usually put the cable around the charging station or on a wall bracket and have no loose cable.
With the second option, the manufacturers only offer charging stations a charging socket with type 2, because this type of plug has been chosen as the standard in Europe and is therefore oriented towards the future. Now you need a charging cable that you can plug into the charging station and the other end into your electric vehicle. If you have an E car with type 1 plug, you can still charge there, as the manufacturers usually offer a type 1 to type 2 charging cable. Here the advantages turn to the disadvantage and vice versa. You are flexible in your charge, but have to put a cable back into the car or somewhere else.
Charge mode 4
In the charging modes Mode 1, Mode 2 and Mode 3, the electric cars charge via the "normal" power supply. This consists of the AC voltage and is only converted into a DC voltage (with small losses) in the vehicle. In mode 4 charging, the electric car is charged via a DC voltage. These charging stations are much more expensive (from approx. 20 000 €) than AC charging stations due to the technology, construction and possibilities of quick charging. Therefore they are mainly installed on highways like motorways. There one arrives with the alternating voltage and this is brought over transformation, rectification and further electrical possibilities on a direct voltage chargeable for the vehicle. This DC voltage is fed into the E car via other connector systems. These include the CHAdeMO plug (derived from the Japanese - translated similarly to CHArge de MOve) and the CCS plug (Combined Charging System). Each connector has its own individual characteristics and performance. Since the DC charging system can transmit an output of 24 kW to 50 kW up to the present level of approx. 350 kW, the charging cables are integrated in the charging station as an extended safety feature and can be removed from the charging station and plugged into the electric car in the same way as at the usual filling station. The plug is locked and charges the vehicle fully.
If you are missing information or would like to know more about the basics or further information about electromobility, please contact us and we will be happy to help you. Click HERE to contact us !
© ESL E - Mobility , Technology Park 13 , 33100 Paderborn